臨床大數據分析與挖掘——基於Python和機器學習的臨床決策

孫麗萍,張良均

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本書不僅講解了機器學習基本原理和基本方法,而且通過大量醫療領域的案例實現對醫療健康數據的處理和分析,能夠在很大程度上輔助醫護人員進行臨床決策。通過本書學習,讀者不僅能夠掌握機器學習算法建模前的數據準備、篩選構造機器學習算法指標的特徵工程、不同類別的機器學習算法,還能夠掌握臨床診療數據、電子病歷檔案數據及影像數據等多源異構數據的處理方法,以及醫療圖像、文本等數據的讀取、預處理、可視化等知識。同時,本書還介紹了具有開源、去編程化的TipDM 數據挖掘建模平臺,通過拖曳的圖形化操作就能實現數據分析的全流程。本書可以作為醫學類院校數據科學與大數據技術專業的核心課程教材,以及醫工專業的專業核心課程或選修課程教材。在此基礎上,還可以作為臨床、口腔、醫技、檢驗、影像、公共衛生等醫學類專業進階層次的專業限選課程或拓展課程的教材。

目錄大綱

第1 章機器學習 ··············································································································1 1.1 機器學習簡介·······································································································1 1.1.1 機器學習的概念······························································································1 1.1.2 機器學習的應用領域························································································1 1.2 機器學習通用流程································································································2 1.2.1 目標分析·······································································································2 1.2.2 數據準備·······································································································3 1.2.3 特徵工程·······································································································4 1.2.4 模型訓練與調優······························································································5 1.2.5 性能度量與模型應用························································································6 1.3 Python 機器學習工具庫簡介·················································································6 1.3.1 數據準備相關工具庫························································································6 1.3.2 數據可視化相關工具庫·····················································································7 1.3.3 模型訓練與評估相關工具庫···············································································8 小結····························································································································9 課後習題 ··················································································································.10 第 2 章數據準備 ···········································································································.12 2.1 數據質量校驗····································································································.12 2.1.1 一致性校驗·································································································.12 2.1.2 缺失值校驗·································································································.15 2.1.3 異常值校驗·································································································.17 2.2 數據分佈與趨勢探查·························································································.18 2.2.1 分佈分析····································································································.18 2.2.2 對比分析····································································································.22 2.2.3 描述性統計分析···························································································.25 2.2.4 周期性分析·································································································.28 2.2.5 貢獻度分析·································································································.29 2.2.6 相關性分析·································································································.31 VIII 2.3 數據清洗···········································································································.35 2.3.1 缺失值處理·································································································.35 2.3.2 異常值處理·································································································.38 2.4 數據合並···········································································································.39 2.4.1 數據堆疊····································································································.39 2.4.2 主鍵合並····································································································.43 小結·························································································································.45 課後習題 ··················································································································.45 第 3 章特徵工程 ···········································································································.48 3.1 特徵變換···········································································································.48 3.1.1 標準化·······································································································.48 3.1.2 獨熱編碼····································································································.54 3.1.3 離散化·······································································································.55 3.2 特徵選擇···········································································································.58 3.2.1 子集搜索與評價···························································································.58 3.2.2 過濾式選擇·································································································.59 3.2.3 包裹式選擇·································································································.59 3.2.4 嵌入式選擇與L1 範數正則化···········································································.60 3.2.5 稀疏表示與字典學習·····················································································.61 小結·························································································································.63 課後習題 ··················································································································.63 第 4 章有監督學習 ········································································································.66 4.1 有監督學習簡介································································································.66 4.2 性能度量···········································································································.66 4.2.1 分類任務性能度量························································································.66 4.2.2 回歸任務性能度量························································································.68 4.3 線性模型···········································································································.69 4.3.1 線性模型簡介······························································································.69 4.3.2 線性回歸····································································································.69 4.3.3 邏輯回歸····································································································.72 4.4 k 近鄰分類········································································································.75 4.5 決策樹··············································································································.78 4.5.1 決策樹簡介·································································································.78 4.5.2 ID3 算法·····································································································.79 4.5.3 C4.5 算法····································································································.81 4.5.4 CART 算法··································································································.83 4.6 支持向量機·······································································································.86 4.6.1 支持向量機簡介···························································································.86 4.6.2 線性支持向量機···························································································.87 4.6.3 非線性支持向量機························································································.91 4.7 樸素貝葉斯·······································································································.94 4.8 神經網絡···········································································································.98 4.8.1 神經網絡介紹······························································································.98 4.8.2 BP 神經網絡································································································.99 4.9 集成學習···········································································································104 4.9.1 Bagging ······································································································104 4.9.2 Boosting ·····································································································106 4.9.3 Stacking ······································································································115 小結·························································································································116 課後習題 ··················································································································116 第 5 章無監督學習 ········································································································118 5.1 無監督學習簡介································································································118 5.2 降維··················································································································118 5.2.1 PCA ··········································································································118 5.2.2 核化線性降維······························································································121 5.3 聚類任務···········································································································123 5.3.1 聚類性能度量指標························································································124 5.3.2 距離計算····································································································125 5.3.3 原型聚類····································································································126 5.3.4 密度聚類····································································································137 5.3.5 層次聚類····································································································139 小結·························································································································142 課後習題 ··················································································································142 第 6 章智能推薦 ···········································································································144 6.1 智能推薦簡介····································································································144 6.1.1 推薦系統····································································································144 6.1.2 智能推薦的應用···························································································144 6.2 推薦系統性能度量·····························································································146 6.2.1 離線實驗評價指標························································································146 6.2.2 用戶調查評價指標························································································148 6.2.3 在線實驗評價指標························································································149 6.3 基於關聯規則的推薦技術··················································································149 6.3.1 關聯規則和頻繁項集·····················································································150 6.3.2 Apriori 算法·································································································150 6.3.3 FP-Growth 算法····························································································154 6.4 基於協同過濾的推薦技術··················································································159 6.4.1 基於用戶的協同過濾·····················································································159 6.4.2 基於物品的協同過濾·····················································································163 小結·························································································································166 課後習題 ··················································································································167 第 7 章醫療保險的欺詐發現 ··························································································169 7.1 目標分析···········································································································169 7.1.1 背景··········································································································169 7.1.2 數據說明····································································································170 7.1.3 分析目標····································································································171 7.2 數據準備···········································································································172 7.2.1 描述性統計分析···························································································172 7.2.2 數據清洗····································································································172 7.2.3 分析投保人和醫療機構的信息·········································································173 7.3 特徵工程···········································································································177 7.3.1 特徵選擇····································································································177 7.3.2 特徵變換····································································································178 7.4 模型訓練···········································································································182 7.5 性能度量···········································································································184 7.5.1 結果分析····································································································184 7.5.2 聚類性能度量······························································································188 小結·························································································································190 第 8 章中醫證型關聯規則分析 ······················································································191 8.1 目標分析···········································································································191 8.1.1 背景··········································································································191 8.1.2 數據說明····································································································191 8.1.3 分析目標····································································································192 8.2 數據準備···········································································································193 8.2.1 數據獲取····································································································193 8.2.2 數據清洗····································································································195 8.3 特徵工程···········································································································196 8.3.1 特徵選擇····································································································196 8.3.2 特徵變換····································································································197 8.4 模型訓練···········································································································201 8.5 性能度量···········································································································202 8.5.1 結果分析····································································································203 8.5.2 模型應用····································································································204 小結·························································································································204 第 9 章糖尿病遺傳風險預測 ··························································································205 9.1 目標分析···········································································································205 9.1.1 背景··········································································································205 9.1.2 數據說明····································································································206 9.1.3 分析目標····································································································207 9.2 數據準備···········································································································207 9.2.1 數據探索····································································································207 9.2.2 數據清洗····································································································209 9.3 特徵工程···········································································································209 9.4 模型構建···········································································································211 9.4.1 交叉驗證····································································································211 9.4.2 模型訓練····································································································213 9.5 性能度量···········································································································214 9.5.1 結果分析····································································································214 9.5.2 模型評價····································································································216 小結·························································································································216 第 10 章基於深度殘差神經網絡的皮膚癌檢測································································217 10.1 目標分析·········································································································217 10.1.1 背景·········································································································217 10.1.2 圖像數據說明·····························································································218 10.1.3 分析方法與過程··························································································219 10.2 圖像數據預處理······························································································219 10.2.1 圖像預處理································································································219 10.2.2 查看處理後的圖像·······················································································222 10.3 模型構建·········································································································223 10.3.1 捲積神經網絡(CNN) ················································································223 10.3.2 殘差網絡(Residual Network) ·······································································226 10.3.3 ImageDataGenerator 參數說明·········································································228 10.3.4 訓練深度殘差神經網絡模型···········································································229 10.4 性能度量·········································································································231 10.4.1 性能分析···································································································231 10.4.2 結果分析···································································································232 小結·························································································································234 第 11 章基於 TipDM 數據挖掘建模平臺實現醫療保險的欺詐發現··································236 11.1 TipDM 數據挖掘建模平臺················································································236 11.1.1 首頁·········································································································237 11.1.2 數據源······································································································238 11.1.3 工程·········································································································239 11.1.4 系統組件···································································································240 11.1.5 TipDM 數據挖掘建模平臺的本地化部署···························································241 11.2 快速構建醫療保險的欺詐發現工程··································································243 11.2.1 獲取數據···································································································244 11.2.2 數據準備···································································································247 11.2.3 特徵工程···································································································250 11.2.4 模型訓練···································································································253 小結·························································································································255 參考文獻 ·························································································································256