電腦考研專業課——電腦組成原理一本通(考點詳解+習題全解)

劉財政 李紅

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《計算機考研專業課——計算機組成原理一本通(考點詳解+習題全解)》嚴格按照全國碩士研究生入學考試計算機學科專業基礎綜合大綱進行編寫,
全面涵蓋計算機系統概述、數據原理、主存儲器、指令系統、中央處理器、
總線、輸入/輸出系統等大綱所要求的知識點,並以圖表的形式對考點進行講解,內容清晰易懂。
本書精選歷年的408考題及部分名校試題進行詳細講解,
幫助考生學練結合,提高考生的學習效率。
《計算機考研專業課——計算機組成原理一本通
(考點詳解+習題全解)》可作為學生參加計算機專業碩士研究生入學考試的輔導用書,
也可作為計算機及相關專業的學生學習計算機組成原理的教材。

作者簡介

李紅

博士,副教授,碩士研究生導師。多年計算機專業課程教學和培訓經驗,
獲得優秀教師稱號,教學大賽一等獎等。
現任啟航計算機課程主講老師之一,主編《啟航計算機真題大全解》,
對統考及北京地區985 高校出題思路與動向把握深刻。
通過分模塊測試學員複習進度,依據多次模擬,進行教學服務調整;
確保學員順利完成各階段學習KPI。

劉財政

中國科學院博士。
啟航計算機集訓營、網課主講和高端VIP一對一中心老師,
具有豐富的教學經驗和紮實的知識積累,深受廣大學員和家長的喜愛和一致好評。
採用一個中心、點面結合教學法,以考試實戰為中心,以突破考試知識為切入點,
以建立知識體係為基本面,在點面結合中,讓學生掌握應試技巧和提升考試能力。


啟航考研

成立於1998年,國內首批從事考研培訓的民辦教育機構之一,啟航考研2016年加入啟航龍圖教育科技集團有限公司,
通過資源整合,形成了線下輔導、線上教育、圖書出版等多元化的教學服務體系。
本圖書是由啟航龍圖計算機學院聯合高校在職教師、中科院博士共同編寫,專門針對計算機專業考研專業課。
計算機專業考研目前是統考與高校自主命題並存的形勢,本書以408統考體係為主線,
結合部分熱門院校的自主命題,全面覆蓋高頻考點,重點突出,層次分明。
為了幫助考生更好地理解考點內容,本圖書還錄製了一系列的圖書配套視頻。
此外,啟航龍圖計算機學院還設計了“408統考”與“自主命題定向輔導”相結合的定制課程,
包括全年集訓營、半年集訓營、暑期特訓營、百日沖刺集訓營等,採用高三式、
全封閉、軍事化管理,同時也開設了針對目標院校目標專業的高端定制的網絡課程。
經驗豐富的師資、專業的課程設計、完備的課後答疑輔導、
全套的圖書資料,為考生提供全方位一體化的教學服務。

目錄大綱

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Mùlù dì 1 zhāng jìsuànjī xìtǒng gàishù···················· 1. 1.1 Běnzhāng dǎo xué································· 1 1.1.1 Kǎoyán jiědú························ 1. 1.1.2 Zhīshì jiégòu························ 1. 1.2 Jìsuànjī de fǎ zhǎn lìchéng yǔ fēnlèi······ 2. 1.3 Jìsuànjī xìtǒng····························· 3. 1.3.1 Jìsuànjī xìtǒng de zǔchéng········· 3. 1.3.2 Jìsuànjī xìtǒng de céngcì jiégòu··························· 4. 1.3.3 Jìsuànjī de ruǎnjiàn················· 4. 1.3.4 Cúnchú chéngxù sīxiǎng yǔ féng·nuò yī màn jìsuànjī········· 5. 1.3.5 Jìsuànjī de yìngjiàn zǔchéng········· 6. 1.3.6 Jìsuànjī de zhǐlìng zhíxíng guòchéng································ 7. 1.4 Jìsuànjī dì xìngnéng zhǐbiāo·················· 8. 1.5 Běnzhāng xítí······························· 10. 1.6 Xítí cānkǎo dá'àn······················· 12. Dì 2 zhāng yùnsuàn qì································ 14 2.1 Běnzhāng dǎo xué······························· 14. 2.1.1 Kǎoyán jiědú······················ 14. 2.1.2 Zhīshì jiégòu······················ 14. 2.2 Zhīshì jiǎngjiě······························· 15. 2.2.1 Jīběn gàiniàn······················ 15. 2.2.2 Jìn zhì xìtǒng······················ 15. 2.2.3 Dìng diǎnshù biǎoshì hé yùnsuàn······· 16. 2.2.4 Fú diǎnshù biǎoshì hé yùnsuàn······· 24. 2.2.5 IEEE 754 biāozhǔn·············· 27. 2.2.6 Yùnsuàn qì·························· 29. 2.2.7 Jiào yàn mǎ·························· 31. 2.3 Běnzhāng xítí······························· 35. 2.4 Xítí cānkǎo dá'àn························ 40. Dì 3 zhāng zhǔ cúnchúqì····························· 47 3.1 Běnzhāng dǎo xué······························· 47. 3.1.1 Kǎoyán jiědú······················ 47. 3.1.2 Zhīshì jiégòu······················ 48. 3.2 Zhīshì jiǎngjiě······························· 49. 3.2.1 Jīběn gàiniàn······················ 49. 3.2.2 Cúnchúqì de fēnlèi·············· 49. 3.2.3 Cúnchúqì de xìtǒng jiégòu······ 51. 3.2.4 Bàndǎotǐ suíjī cúnchúqì hé zhǐ dú cúnchúqì·················· 52. 3.2.5 Zhǔ cúnchúqì yǔ CPU de liánjiē yǔ kòngzhì·················· 55. 3.2.6 Shuāng duānkǒu RAM hé duō tǐ mókuài cúnchúqì·················· 58. 3.2.7 Zhǔ cún—Cache xìtǒng······· 60. 3.2.8 Xūnǐ cúnchú xìtǒng·············· 70. 3.3 Běnzhāng xítí······························· 75. 3.4 Xítí cānkǎo dá'àn························ 88 dì 4 zhāng zhǐlìng xìtǒng··························· 107 4.1 Běnzhāng dǎo xué····························· 107. 4.1.1 Kǎoyán jiědú···················· 107. 4.1.2 Zhīshì jiégòu···················· 107. 4.2 Jīqì zhǐlìng····························· 108. 4.3 Dìng zhǎng zhǐlìng géshì hé biàn zhǎng zhǐlìng géshì····································· 109. 4.4 Xún zhǐ fāngshì····························· 112. 4.4.1 Xún zhǐ fāngshì gàishù············ 112. 4.4.2 Zhǐlìng xún zhǐ···················· 112. Jìsuànjī kǎoyán zhuānyèkè——jìsuànjī zǔchéng yuánlǐ yī běn tōng (kǎodiǎn xiángjiě +xítí quán jiě) IV 4.4.3 Shùjù xún zhǐ···················· 113. 4.5 Fùzá zhǐlìng xìtǒng jìsuànjī hé jīngjiǎn zhǐlìng xìtǒng jìsuànjī·········· 118. 4.6 Běnzhāng xítí····························· 119. 4.7 Xítí cānkǎo dá'àn····················· 124. Dì 5 zhāng zhōngyāng chǔlǐ qì (CPU)········ 129 5.1 Běnzhāng dǎo xué····························· 129. 5.1.1 Kǎogāng jiědú···················· 129. 5.1.2 Zhīshì jiégòu···················· 129. 5.2 CPU de gōngnéng hé zǔchéng············· 130. 5.2.1 CPU de zǔchéng hé jiégòu···· 130. 5.2.2 CPU zhōng de jìcúnqì········ 131. 5.2.3 CPU de gōngnéng hé shùjù tōnglù···························· 132. 5.3 Kòngzhì de shèjì yuánlǐ················· 135. 5.3.1 CPU de kòngzhì fāngshì········ 135. 5.3.2 Wéi chéngxù kòngzhì qì de yuánlǐ hé shèjì························ 136. 5.3.3 Zǔhé luójí kòngzhì qì de yuánlǐ hé shèjì················· 140. 5.4 Zhǐlìng liúshuǐxiàn························· 140. 5.4.1 Zhǐlìng zhíxíng fāng'àn············· 140. 5.4.2 Zhǐlìng liúshuǐxiàn················· 141. 5.4.3 Liúshuǐxiàn dì xìngnéng zhǐbiāo····· 142. 5.4.4 Yǐngxiǎng liúshuǐxiàn xìngnéng de yīnsù···························· 143. 5.4.5 Chāo liúshuǐxiàn jìshù············· 144. 5.5 Běnzhāng xítí····························· 146. 5.6 Xítí cānkǎo dá'àn····················· 154. Dì 6 zhāng zǒngxiàn·································· 162 6.1 Běnzhāng dǎo xué····························· 162. 6.1.1 Kǎoyán jiědú···················· 162. 6.1.2 Zhīshì jiégòu···················· 162. 6.2 Zǒngxiàn gàishù····························· 163. 6.2.1 Jīběn gàiniàn···················· 163. 6.2.2 Zǒngxiàn de fēnlèi················ 163. 6.2.3 Zǒngxiàn de zǔchéng················ 164. 6.2.4 Zǒngxiàn dì xìngnéng zhǐbiāo········ 164. 6.2.5 Zǒngxiàn de liánjiē jiégòu········ 165. 6.2.6 Zǒngxiàn de tèxìng················ 167. 6.3 Zǒngxiàn zhòngcái····························· 167. 6.3.1 Jízhōng zhòngcái···················· 167. 6.3.2 Fēnbù zhòngcái···················· 169. 6.4 Zǒngxiàn tōngxìn kòngzhì······················ 170. 6.4.1 Zǒngxiàn xìnxī chuánsòng guòchéng···· 170. 6.4.2 Zǒngxiàn de dìngshí fāngshì········ 170. 6.5 Zǒngxiàn biāozhǔn····························· 172. 6.5.1 Xìtǒng zǒngxiàn biāozhǔn············ 172. 6.5.2 Shèbèi zǒngxiàn biāozhǔn (wàibù zǒngxiàn biāozhǔn)···· 173. 6.6 Běnzhāng xítí····························· 173. 6.7 Xítí cānkǎo dá'àn······················ 178. Dì 7 zhāng shūrù/shūchū xìtǒng·················· 183 7.1 Běnzhāng dǎo xué····························· 183. 7.1.1 Kǎoyán jiědú···················· 183. 7.1.2 Zhīshì jiégòu···················· 184. 7.2 Jīběn gàiniàn····························· 184. 7.3 Wàibù shèbèi····························· 185. 7.4 I/O jiēkǒu······························· 188. 7.5 I/O kòngzhì fāngshì······················· 190. 7.5.1 Chéngxù cháxún fāngshì············ 190. 7.5.2 Chéngxù zhōngduàn fāngshì············ 191. 7.5.3 Zhíjiē cúnchúqì cún qǔ fāngshì···························· 198. 7.5.4 I/O tōngdào kòngzhì fāngshì······ 201. 7.5.5 I/O chǔlǐ jī·················· 203. 7.6 Běnzhāng xítí····························· 203. 7.7 Xítí cānkǎo dá'àn······················ 211

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目 錄
第 1 章 計算機系統概述 ···················· 1.
1.1 本章導學 ································· 1
1.1.1 考研解讀 ························ 1.
1.1.2 知識結構 ························ 1.
1.2 計算機的發展歷程與分類 ······ 2.
1.3 計算機系統 ····························· 3.
1.3.1 計算機系統的組成 ········· 3.
1.3.2 計算機系統的層次結構 ··························· 4.
1.3.3 計算機的軟件 ················· 4.
1.3.4 存儲程序思想與馮·諾依曼計算機 ········· 5.
1.3.5 計算機的硬件組成 ········· 6.
1.3.6 計算機的指令執行過程 ································ 7.
1.4 計算機的性能指標 ·················· 8.
1.5 本章習題 ······························· 10.
1.6 習題參考答案 ······················· 12.

第 2 章 運算器 ································ 14
2.1 本章導學 ······························· 14.
2.1.1 考研解讀 ······················ 14.
2.1.2 知識結構 ······················ 14.
2.2 知識講解 ······························· 15.
2.2.1 基本概念 ······················ 15.
2.2.2 進制系統 ······················ 15.
2.2.3 定點數表示和運算 ······· 16.
2.2.4 浮點數表示和運算 ······· 24.
2.2.5 IEEE 754 標準 ·············· 27.
2.2.6 運算器 ·························· 29.
2.2.7 校驗碼 ·························· 31.
2.3 本章習題 ······························· 35.
2.4 習題參考答案 ························ 40.

第 3 章 主存儲器····························· 47
3.1 本章導學 ······························· 47.
3.1.1 考研解讀 ······················ 47.
3.1.2 知識結構 ······················ 48.
3.2 知識講解 ······························· 49.
3.2.1 基本概念 ······················ 49.
3.2.2 存儲器的分類 ·············· 49.
3.2.3 存儲器的系統結構 ······ 51.
3.2.4 半導體隨機存儲器和只讀存儲器 ·················· 52.
3.2.5 主存儲器與 CPU 的連接與控制 ·················· 55.
3.2.6 雙端口 RAM 和多體模塊存儲器 ·················· 58.
3.2.7 主存—Cache 系統 ······· 60.
3.2.8 虛擬存儲系統 ·············· 70.
3.3 本章習題 ······························· 75.
3.4 習題參考答案 ························ 88

第 4 章 指令系統··························· 107
4.1 本章導學 ····························· 107.
4.1.1 考研解讀 ···················· 107.
4.1.2 知識結構 ···················· 107.
4.2 機器指令 ····························· 108.
4.3 定長指令格式和變長指令格式 ····································· 109.
4.4 尋址方式 ····························· 112.
4.4.1 尋址方式概述 ············ 112.
4.4.2 指令尋址 ···················· 112.
計算機考研專業課——計算機組成原理一本通(考點詳解+習題全解)
IV
4.4.3 數據尋址 ···················· 113.
4.5 複雜指令系統計算機和精簡指令系統計算機 ·········· 118.
4.6 本章習題 ····························· 119.
4.7 習題參考答案 ····················· 124.

第 5 章 中央處理器(CPU) ········ 129
5.1 本章導學 ····························· 129.
5.1.1 考綱解讀 ···················· 129.
5.1.2 知識結構 ···················· 129.
5.2 CPU 的功能和組成 ············· 130.
5.2.1 CPU 的組成和結構 ···· 130.
5.2.2 CPU 中的寄存器 ········ 131.
5.2.3 CPU 的功能和數據通路 ···························· 132.
5.3 控制的設計原理 ················· 135.
5.3.1 CPU 的控制方式 ········ 135.
5.3.2 微程序控制器的原理和設計 ························ 136.
5.3.3 組合邏輯控制器的原理和設計 ················· 140.
5.4 指令流水線 ························· 140.
5.4.1 指令執行方案 ············· 140.
5.4.2 指令流水線 ················· 141.
5.4.3 流水線的性能指標 ····· 142.
5.4.4 影響流水線性能的因素 ···························· 143.
5.4.5 超流水線技術 ············· 144.
5.5 本章習題 ····························· 146.
5.6 習題參考答案 ····················· 154.

第 6 章 總線 ·································· 162
6.1 本章導學 ····························· 162.
6.1.1 考研解讀 ···················· 162.
6.1.2 知識結構 ···················· 162.
6.2 總線概述 ····························· 163.
6.2.1 基本概念 ···················· 163.
6.2.2 總線的分類 ················ 163.
6.2.3 總線的組成 ················ 164.
6.2.4 總線的性能指標 ········ 164.
6.2.5 總線的連接結構 ········ 165.
6.2.6 總線的特性 ················ 167.
6.3 總線仲裁 ····························· 167.
6.3.1 集中仲裁 ···················· 167.
6.3.2 分佈仲裁 ···················· 169.
6.4 總線通信控制 ······················ 170.
6.4.1 總線信息傳送過程 ···· 170.
6.4.2 總線的定時方式 ········ 170.
6.5 總線標準 ····························· 172.
6.5.1 系統總線標準 ············ 172.
6.5.2 設備總線標準(外部總線標準) ···· 173.
6.6 本章習題 ····························· 173.
6.7 習題參考答案 ······················ 178.

第 7 章 輸入/輸出系統 ·················· 183
7.1 本章導學 ····························· 183.
7.1.1 考研解讀 ···················· 183.
7.1.2 知識結構 ···················· 184.
7.2 基本概念 ····························· 184.
7.3 外部設備 ····························· 185.
7.4 I/O 接口 ······························· 188.
7.5 I/O 控制方式 ······················· 190.
7.5.1 程序查詢方式 ············ 190.
7.5.2 程序中斷方式 ············ 191.
7.5.3 直接存儲器存取
方式 ···························· 198.
7.5.4 I/O 通道控制方式 ······ 201.
7.5.5 I/O 處理機 ·················· 203.
7.6 本章習題 ····························· 203.
7.7 習題參考答案 ······················ 211