The Microsoft DirectX 9 Programmable Graphics Pipeline

Microsoft Corporation

  • 出版商: MicroSoft
  • 出版日期: 2003-06-28
  • 售價: $1,620
  • 貴賓價: 9.5$1,539
  • 語言: 英文
  • 頁數: 496
  • 裝訂: Paperback
  • ISBN: 0735616531
  • ISBN-13: 9780735616530
  • 已過版

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Summary

The graphics programmer’s essential guide to DirectX 9, straight from the Microsoft DirectX team

The Microsoft DirectX 3D graphics pipeline has undergone a major architectural shift with version 9, making it fully programmable—and this book lets you get in on the action! Discover how you can boost multimedia performance for all types of applications, including animation, texturing, modeling, and rendering, with this next generation of 3D graphics software. Providing a step-by-step tour through the graphics pipeline and its 3D utilities, the book covers fundamental features such as vertex shaders, pixel shaders, effect files, new 3D utilities, including mesh utilities, and DirectX 9 extensions. It also includes coded examples showing you how to use or mix and match blocks within the pipeline for unique graphics needs. Packed with how-to information and documentation straight from the Microsoft DirectX development team, this essential guide delivers everything you need for faster, leaner development—and more powerful results.

Table of Contents

    Foreword

xiii

    Acknowledgments

xvii

    Introduction

xix

PART I  PROGRAMMING ASSEMBLY-LANGUAGE SHADERS

 

1  Vertex Shader Introduction

3

    Vertex Processing

4

    Vertex Shader Tutorial 1: Transforming Vertices

6

    Vertex Shader Tutorial 1a: Adding a Diffuse Color

19

    Summary

23

2  Vertex Shader Virtual Machine

25

    Virtual Machine Block Diagram

25

    Shader Layout

27

    Registers

28

    Instructions

32

        Setup Instructions

33

        Arithmetic Instructions

34

        Macro-Op Instructions

35

        Texture Instructions

36

        Flow-Control Instructions

36

    Modifiers Extend the Virtual Machine

37

    Vertex Shader Version Differences

39

    Summary

41

3  Vertex Shader Examples

43

    Example 1: Vertex Shader Fog

43

    Example 2: Vertex Shader SDK Sample

47

    Example 3: Vertex Blend SDK Sample

56

    Summary

65

4  Pixel Shader Virtual Machine

67

    Pixel Processing

67

    Pixel Shader Virtual Machine Block Diagram

72

    Shader Layout

74

    Registers

75

        Input Registers for Versions 1_1 to 1_4

76

        Output Register for Versions 1_1 to 1_4

77

        Input Registers for Version ps_2_0 and Later

77

    Instructions

80

        Setup Instructions

82

        Arithmetic Instructions

83

        Macro-Op Instructions

84

        Texture Instructions

85

        Flow-Control Instructions

87

        Instruction Set Summary

89

    Modifiers Extend the Virtual Machine

89

        Modifiers for Versions 1_1 to 1_4

90

        Modifiers for ps_2_0 and Later

92

    Pixel Shader Version Differences

92

    Summary

93

5  Pixel Shader Examples

95

    Example 1: 2-D Image Processing

95

    Example 2: Multilayered Textures

101

PART II  PROGRAMMING HLSL SHADERS

 

6  HLSL Introduction

109

    Tutorial 1: Start with a Vertex Shader: Hello World

110

        Add a Diffuse Color

113

    Tutorial 2: Add a Pixel Shader

115

        Complementing

118

        Darkening

118

        Masking the Red Out

119

        Displaying Red Only

119

    Tutorial 3: Add a Procedural Texture

120

    Building the Tutorials

122

        Creating Resources

123

        Rendering

129

    Summary

130

7  The Language

131

    Data Types

131

        Scalar Types

131

        Variable Declaration

132

        Type Modifiers

132

        Storage Class Modifiers

134

        Semantics

135

        Annotations

135

        Vector Types

135

        Matrix Types

138

        Constructors

142

        Casting

143

        Integer Math

144

        Complex Data Types

144

    Expressions and Statements

149

        Statements

155

    Functions

160

        Function Declaration

160

        Function Body

167

        Intrinsic Functions

168

    Summary

169

8  HLSL Examples

171

    Glow Example

171

        Apply a Texture

173

        Add the Glow

183

    Sparkle Example

192

        Vertex Shader

195

        Texture Shader

198

        Pixel Shader

199

        Diffuse Only

201

        Diffuse and Gloss

201

        Diffuse, Gloss, and Sparkle

201

        Vertex and Pixel Shader Creation

202

        Procedural Texture Creation

204

        Environment Map Creation

205

        Mesh Creation

206

        Render

210

    HLSL Experimentation in EffectEdit

211

    Summary

212

PART III  PROGRAMMING EFFECTS

 

9  Effect Introduction

215

    Effects and the 3-D Pipeline

215

    An Effect with an Assembly-Language Vertex Shader

217

        Effect Global Variables

218

        Effect State

219

    HLSL Vertex Shader

222

    Characteristics of Effects

225

        Save and Restore State

225

        Use Multiple Techniques and Passes

227

        Share Parameters

229

        Use Semantics to Find Parameters

230

        Use Handles to Get and Set Parameters

230

        Add Parameter Information with Annotations

231

    Building an Effect

232

        Create an Effect

232

        Validate an Effect

234

        Render an Effect

234

    Summary

236

10  Assembly-Language Effect Examples

237

    Example 1: Asm Vertex Shader with Lighting

237

    Example 2: Asm Vertex Shader and Pixel Shader with Texturing

243

    Example 3: Asm Vertex Shader Environment Map

249

11  HLSL Effect Examples

259

    Example 1: Vertex and Pixel Shader with Per-Pixel Lighting

259

    Example 2: Multiple-Pass Rendering with Alpha Blending

265

    EffectEdit: Interactive Effect Development

274

        The Code Pane

274

        The Render Pane

275

        The Rendering Options Pane

275

        The Compile Results Pane

275

        Getting an Effect to Run in EffectEdit

276

    Example 3: Hemispheric Lighting

278

PART IV  APPENDIXES

 

A  Vertex Processing

287

    Transformations

287

        Affine Transform

289

        Left-to-Right Order

290

        World Transform

291

        View Transform

292

        Projection Transform

294

    Vertex Fog

297

    Lights and Materials

299

    Ambient Light

300

    Diffuse Light

300

    Specular Light

301

    Emissive Light

302

    Light Attenuation

302

    Spotlight Cone

303

B  Asm Shader Instructions

305

    Instructions

305

C  HLSL Reference

347

    1: Data Types

347

        1.1 Intrinsic Types

347

        1.2 User-Defined Types

348

        1.3 Type Casts

349

    2: Operators

351

    3: User-Defined Functions

353

        3.1 Vertex Shader Semantics

355

        3.2 Pixel Shader Semantics

356

        3.3 Procedural Texture Shader Semantics

357

    4: Intrinsic Functions

357

    5: Pixel Shader 1_x Considerations

386

        5.1 ps_1_1, ps_1_2, and ps_1_3

387

        5.2 ps_1_4

387

        5.3 Modifiers

388

        5.4 Texture Instructions

391

    6: Keywords

397

    7: Directives

398

    8: Lexical Conventions

398

        8.1 White Space

398

        8.2 Floating-Point Numbers

399

        8.3 Integer Numbers

399

        8.4 Characters

400

        8.5 Identifiers

401

        8.6 Strings

400

    9: Grammar

400

        9.1 Program

400

        9.2 Declarations

400

        9.3 Usages

401

        9.4 Types

401

        9.5 Structures

402

        9.6 Annotations

403

        9.7 Variables

403

        9.8 Initializers

403

        9.9 Functions

403

        9.10 Techniques

404

        9.11 Statements

405

        9.12 Expressions

405

        9.13 Tokens

407

D  Effect Reference

409

    1: Effect Format

409

        1.1 Variables

409

        1.2 Techniques

411

        1.3 Passes

411

        1.4 Expressions

411

        1.5 Annotations

413

        1.6 Cloning and Sharing

414

        1.7 Handles

415

        1.8 IDs and Semantics

416

        1.9 Usages

417

        1.10 Literals

417

        1.11 Validation

418

    2: Effect States

418

        2.1 Light States

419

        2.2 Material States

420

        2.3 Render States: Vertex Pipeline vs. Pixel Pipeline

421

        2.4 Sampler States

426

        2.5 Sampler Stage States

426

        2.6 Shader States

428

        2.7 Shader Constant States

429

        2.8 Texture States

431

        2.9 Texture Stage States

431

        2.10 Transform States

433

        Summary

433

INDEX

435