Digital Modeling of Material Appearance

Julie Dorsey, Holly Rushmeier, François Sillion

  • 出版商: Morgan Kaufmann
  • 出版日期: 2007-12-01
  • 售價: $1,980
  • 貴賓價: 9.5$1,881
  • 語言: 英文
  • 頁數: 336
  • 裝訂: Hardcover
  • ISBN: 0122211812
  • ISBN-13: 9780122211812
  • 相關分類: 遊戲開發設計
  • 立即出貨(限量)




Computer graphics systems are capable of generating stunningly realistic images of objects that have never physically existed. In order for computers to create these accurately detailed images, digital models of appearance must include robust data to give viewers a credible visual impression of the depicted materials. In particular, digital models demonstrating the nuances of how materials interact with light are essential to this capability.

This is the first comprehensive work on the digital modeling of material appearance: it explains how models from physics and engineering are combined with keen observation skills for use in computer graphics rendering.

Written by the foremost experts in appearance modeling and rendering, this book is for practitioners who want a general framework for understanding material modeling tools, and also for researchers pursuing the development of new modeling techniques. The text is not a "how to" guide for a particular software system. Instead, it provides a thorough discussion of foundations and detailed coverage of key advances.

Practitioners and researchers in applications such as architecture, theater, product development, cultural heritage documentation, visual simulation and training, as well as traditional digital application areas such as feature film, television, and computer games, will benefit from this much needed resource.

Julie Dorsey and Holly Rushmeier are professors in the Computer Science Department at Yale University and co-directors of the Yale Computer Graphics Group. François Sillion is a senior researcher with INRIA (Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et Automatique), and director of its Grenoble Rhône-Alpes research center.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction
Chapter 2 Background
Human Perception and Judgments
Luminance and Brightness
Directional Effects
Textures and Patterns
Image Synthesis
Incident Light
Summary and Further Reading
Chapter 3 Observation and Classification
A Tour of Materials
Examples of Modeling Classes of Materials
Chapter 4 Mathematical Terms
Energy as a Function of Time, Position, and Direction
Reflectance and the BRDF
Distribution Functions
Energy Conservation and the BRDF
Reciprocity and the BRDF
Chapter 5 General Material Models
Reflection and Refraction from a Smooth Surface
Empirical Models
Lambertian Reflectance
Phong Reflectance
Ward Reflectance
Lafortune Reflectance
Ashikhmin-Shirley Anisotropic Phong Reflectance
Analytical First Principles Models
Micro-facet Distributions
Models Based on Geometric Optics
Blinn and Cook-Torrance Reflectance
Oren-Nayar Reflectance
Models Based on Wave Optics
Simulation from First Principles
Spectral Effects
Other Effects
Phosphorescence and Fluorescence
Scattering in Volumes
Measured Properties
Solid Volumetric Media: Subsurface Scattering
Spatial Variations
Chapter 6 Specialized Material Models
Natural Organic Materials
Humans and Other Mammals
Birds, Reptiles, Amphibians, Fish and Insects
Natural: Inorganic
Porous Materials
Water in Other Materials: Wet/Dry Appearance
Materials in Manufactured Goods
Paints, Coatings and Artistic Media
Chapter 7 Measurement
Traditional Measurement
Gonio reflectometers
Industrial Measurement Devices
Image-Based BRDF Measurements of Sample Materials
Cameras as Sensors
Measuring Prepared Homogeneous Material Samples
Measurement of Existing Objects
Large Objects and Buildings
Simultaneous Shape and Reflectance Capture
Small Scale Geometric Structures
Normal and Bump Maps
Bidirectional Texture Functions
Alternative Representations
Subsurface Scattering and Volumetric Media
Additional Dimensions
Chapter 8 Aging and Weathering
Weathering Taxonomy
Combined Processes
Simulation of Weathering Effects
Flow and Deposition
Dust Accumulation
Weathering Systems
Replication of Aged Appearance
Manual Application
Accessibility Shading/Ambient Occlusion
Capture, Analysis, and Transfer of Effects
Chapter 9 Specifying and encoding appearance descriptions
Practical techniques for appearance specification
Visual interfaces for analytic models
Textual and programming interfaces
Composition from basic building blocks
Encoding local appearance attributes
Parameterized models
Tabular data
Basis functions
Association of material and shape
Discussion of surface parameterization
Representation of light and view-dependence
Chapter 10 Rendering appearance
An overview of image creation techniques
Object projection techniques
Image sampling techniques
Local and global calculations
Simulating global illumination
Monte Carlo evaluation of the rendering equation
Caching mechanisms
Finite elements methods
Rendering local appearance
Texture mapping and detail management
BRDF and BTF sampling
Subsurface scattering and participating media
Color and tone
Spectral rendering
Dynamic range and tone mapping
Precomputed rendering elements